Greek Gods and Goddesses

Legendary Greek Gods and Goddesses in Mythology

Greek mythology is fascinating. Even if you’ve never read the complete stories, you can appreciate the gods and goddesses, and the legacy they’ve left behind. Here are some Greek gods and goddesses from Ancient Greece who are incredibly important:

Important Terms In Greek Mythology

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If you’re interested in Greek mythology, here are some terms you should know that relate to the Greek gods:

Olympian Gods

These twelve gods are the major deities of the Greek pantheon. They are called Olympian gods because they resided on mount Olympus. The twelve Olympians are Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Hermes, and either Hestia or Dionysus.

Titan Gods

In ancient Greek mythology, the Titans were the former gods. They were the generation of gods preceding the Olympians. There are twelve Titan Gods. They are Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, and Cronus. The women are Thea, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, and Tethys.

Primordian Gods

In ancient Greek mythology, primordial gods are the first generation of gods and goddesses. They represent basic components of the universe, like Earth, Air, Sea, Sky, Fresh Water, Underworld, Darkness, Night, Light, Day, Procreation, and Time.

The Muses

In ancient Greek mythology, the Muses are important to Greek culture. They are the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts. The Muses are Clio, Euterpe, Thalia, Melpomeni, Terpsichore, Erato, Polymnia, Ourania, and Calliope.

Greek Gods And Goddesses In Greek Mythology

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You’ve probably heard of many gods before. Their names are common in pop culture. However, you might not know their stories. Here are some famous gods in Greek mythology you should know:

Apollo

Apollo was the son of Zeus and Leto. He was born on the island of Delos and was the twin brother of Artemis. She was also an Olympian and shared his skills for archery. Apollo was friends with the nine Muses, goddesses who were known for inspiring art and music. He and his twin sister Artemis both carried bows.

Aphrodite

She was the Greek goddess of beauty, love, and fertility. She fought with Paris in the Trojan War. She and her son Eros (who is Cupid in Roman mythology) worked as a team. He made Zeus fall in love with a human named Europe.

Ares

Ares was another son of Zeus and his mother was Hera. According to Homer, both of his parents could not stand him. Ares was known as the God of War because he represented battle. His Roman equivalent was Mars.

Athena

She is Ares’s female counterpart, the goddess of war. She is another daughter of Zeus and Hera, but she sprung from his forehead fully formed. Athena was the guardian of Athens and the Parthenon was her temple. Just like Hestia and Artemis, she is one of three virgin goddesses. Her Roman counterpart was Minerva.

Artemis

She was the twin sister of Apollo. Artemis was a virgin goddess of wildlife and wild animals, and the patroness of hunters. She played an important role to women when it came to marriage and children. In most paintings and sculptures, she appeared with a hunting dog. Both Apollo and Artemis used a bow and arrow. Her Roman name was Diana.

Dionysus

He wandered the earth, teaching men the culture of the vine. That is why he was known as the God of the Vine. Dionysus was the son of Zeus but born to a mortal mother. Zeus killed her on accident and sewed Dionysus into his thigh. He was the last god to enter Olympus.

Demeter

She was the daughter of Cronos and Rhea. Demeter was also the Greek goddess of fertility and the harvest. Thesmophoria was a festival held in her honor where only women were allowed to attend. Her Roman equivalent was Ceres.

Hades

Hades was known as the God of Wealth, but he ruled the world of the dead. He owned a helmet that made its owner invisible. He married Persephone after kidnapping her and making her his queen. This happened by tricking her into eating enchanted pomegranate seeds so she was forced to remain with him.

Hera

Hera was the queen of the Olympian gods. She was a gracious protector and never forgot an injury. She was the wife to Zeus, but she was also his sister. In the story, the Quest of the Golden Fleece, she was a protector of the heroes. Her Roman equivalent was Juno.

Hestia

She was the sister of Demeter, Hades, Poseidon, Hera, and Zeus. She doesn’t appear in much Greek mythology and wasn’t included in the works of Homer.

Hephaestus

Although most gods are beautiful, this was the only ugly Greek god. He was known as the God of Fire and made furnishings and weapons for the other immortals.

Hermes

This was a trickster god in the Greek pantheon. He also served as a messenger god. Hermes was conceived and born over one day, and he is known for his winged sandals. The Roman god is called Mercury.

Poseidon

This is one of the most popular Greek gods. He was the sea god and protector of waters. Poseidon always carried a trident or three-pronged spear. He received his dominion after the fall of the Titans. His Roman equivalent was Neptune.

Tyche

She was the Greek goddess of fate, fortune, and chance. She represented both the positive and negative characteristics of luck. The ancient Greeks believed she was the reason for both good and bad surprises in their life.

Zeus

Zeus overthrew his father, Cronus, with the help of Poseidon and Hades. He controlled the weather, which makes sense because his name means bright or sky. A fun fact about him you might already know is that he used a thunderbolt as a weapon. It was made for him by the Cyclops. The Roman God is called Jupiter.

More Greek Gods, Goddesses, And Figures From Ancient Greece

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Alectrona

Alectrona is a Greek goddess of the sun or goddess of the morning.

Achelous

This is the patron god of the “silver-swirling” Achelous River.

Aeolus

This is the Greek god of the winds and air.

Amphitrite

This is the Greek goddess of the sea. She is a Nereid who is married to Poseidon, the god of the sea.

Antheia

This is the goddess of gardens, flowers, swamps, and marshes.

Apate

This is another goddess of gardens, flowers, swamps, and marshes.

Astraea

Astraea is associated with the goddess of justice, Dike. She is known as the star maiden.

Ate

This is the Greek goddess of mischief, delusion, ruin, and folly.

Aphaea

This is a Greek goddess who was worshipped at a sanctuary on Aegina.

Achelois

Achelois is a moon goddess. Her name means “she who washes away pain”.

Aether

This is the primordial god of the upper air, light, the atmosphere, space, and heaven.

Alastor

This is the god of family feuds and avenger of evil deeds.

Alcyone

She gave birth to several children with Poseidon, who is another famous god.

Atropos

She chose the mechanism of death and ended the life of each mortal by cutting their thread of human life.

Aristaeus

This is a minor patron god who is the son of Apollo. He represents animal husbandry, bee-keeping, and fruit trees.

Asclepius

This is the god of medicine, health, healing, rejuvenation, and physicians.

Atlas

This is the Primordial Titan of Astronomy who has a famous story. After the Titans lost the war, Atlas was sentenced by Zeus to carry the world on his back.

Bia

This is the goddess of force and raw energy. She is the child of Pallas and Styx. Nike, Kratos, and Zelus are her siblings.

Brizo

This is an ancient Greek prophet goddess. She was known as the protector of mariners, sailors, and fishermen.

Boreas

This is a wind god. He is the god of the cold north wind and the bringer of winter. He is commonly referred to by the name: The North Wind.

Briseis

She was captured by Achilles during the Trojan War. He fell in love with her.

Cerberus

This is a three-headed dog. He lived with Hades, the king of the underworld.

Cerus

This is the wild bull tamed by Persephone. It was turned into the Taurus constellation you may know from astrology.

Chaos

This is an important god who filled the gap between Heaven and Earth. He created Gaia, Tartarus, Uranus, Nyx, and Erebos. They were the first beings, which came from nothing.

Calypso

This is a sea nymph who lived on the island of Ogygia. She detained Odysseus for several years and is the daughter of the Titan Atlas.

Crios

This is the Titan god of the heavenly constellations and the measure of the year.

Cronus

This is the god of agriculture. He is the leader of the first generation of Titans and the father of the Titans.

Charon

This is the Ferryman of Hades. His job is to take newly dead people across the rivers Styx and Acheron to the Greek underworld. His passengers must pay him three obolus, which are Greek silver coins.

Celaeno

This is one of the Pleiades. She married Poseidon, one of the most famous sea gods, and gave birth to Lycus and Nycteus.

Caerus

This is a minor god of opportunity, luck, and favorable moments.

Castor

Castor and Pollux are twins, who are known as Dioskouri. Zeus transformed them into the constellation Gemini.

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Eileithyia

This is the goddess of childbirth. Homer calls her, “the goddess of the pains of birth”.

Erebus 

This is the primordial god of darkness. Primordial gods are gods who come before all else.

Eros 

This is the god of sexual desire, attraction, love, and procreation.

Eurus 

This is one of the wind gods, which are known as Anemoi. He is the god of the east wind, which is known as unlucky.

Electra

This is one of the seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione. All seven of them are known as The Pleiades.

Hercules 

This is one of the most well-known Greek heroes. He is the strongest man on Earth. He became a god of heroes, sports, athletes, health, agriculture, fertility, trade, oracles, and divine protector of mankind. There’s even a Disney movie based on his legacy.

Hephaestus

Hera threw him off of Mount Olympus when he was born. However, he grew up to marry Aphrodite. He was the Greek god of fire and foraging.

Harmonia

This is the Greek goddess of harmony and concord.

Hymenaios 

This is the god of marriage ceremonies, inspiring feasts, and song.

Hynos 

This is the Greek god of sleep.

Helios 

This is the god of the Sun. He is also known as Sol.

Hephaestus 

This is the god of fire, metalworking, stone masonry, forges, and the art of sculpture. He is married to Aphrodite and created weapons for the gods.

Hebe

This is the goddess of youth.

Iris

This is the Greek goddess of the rainbow and messenger of the gods. She is one of the goddesses of the sea and the sky.

Kratos

This is the god of strength and power.

Keres

These are female spirits. They are the daughters of the goddess of night, Nyx.

Kotys

This is a Dionysian goddess. Her celebrations were wild and lascivious.

Lachesis

This is one of the Three Fates. She is the measurer of the thread of life.

Leto

She gave birth to the twins, Artemis and Apollo.

Melpomene

This is another one of the nine Muses. She was originally the muse of singing, but she became the muse of tragedy.

Merope

This is one of the seven Pleiades. Her husband is the king Sisyphos of Ephyra.

Momus

This is the god of satire, mockery, censure, writers, and poets. He is evil-spirited and represents blame and unfair criticism.

Metis

This is the Titan goddess of wisdom. She is an Oceanid who was the first wife to Zeus.

Nyx

This is the primordial goddess of the night.

Nereus 

This is the Titan god of the sea. He was around before Poseidon and was the father of the Nereids (nymphs of the sea).

Notus 

This is another wind god, which is known as an Anemoi. He is the god of the south wind.

Oceanus 

This is the Titan god of the ocean. He is the personification of the World Ocean, which is a huge river that goes around the world.

Peitho

This is the Greek goddess of persuasion and seduction.

Pheme

This is the goddess of fame, gossip, and renown.

Penelope

She is the wife of Odysseus.

Polyhymnia

This is another one of The Muses. She is the muse of sacred poetry, hymn, dance, agriculture, geometry, and pantomime.

Paean 

Paean is the physician of the Olympian gods.

Pallas

This is the Titan god of warcraft. He also represents the springtime campaign season.

Plutus 

This is one of the Greek god names you might not recognize. He is the Greek god of wealth.

Pollux 

Pollux is the twin brother of Castor. The Dioskouri were transformed into the constellation Gemini.

Selene

This is the goddess of the moon. She is referred to as Luna or the mother of vampires.

Sterope

This is one of the seven Pleiades. According to most accounts, she married Oenomaus.

Taygete

This is one of the seven Pleiades who is a mountain nymph.

Terpsichore

This is the goddess of dance and chorus. She is another one of the nine Muses.

Thalia

This is another one of the Muses. She is the muse of comedy and idyllic poetry.

Themis

This is an ancient Greek Titaness. She is the goddess of divine order, law, and custom.

Thetis

This is a sea nymph who is the goddess of water. She is a shapeshifter and a prophet.

Urania

This is one of the Muses. She is the muse of astronomy and astrology.

Zelus 

This is the god of dedication, emulation, eager rivalry, envy, jealousy, and zeal.

Zephyrus 

This is the final wind god. He is the god of the west wind, and he has one of the most interesting Greek god names.

About the author
January Nelson is a writer, editor, and dreamer. She writes about astrology, games, love, relationships, and entertainment. January graduated with an English and Literature degree from Columbia University. Read more articles from January on Thought Catalog.

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